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WRF Model Version 3.9

Model Solver

- fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations with hydrostatic option
- complete coriolis and curvature terms
- two-way nesting with multiple nests and nest levels
- one-way nesting
- moving nest
- mass-based terrain-following coordinate (note that the height-based dynamic core is no longer supported), and hybrid sigma-pressure coordinate (since V3.9)
- vertical grid-spacing can vary with height
- map-scale factors for conformal projections:

* polar stereographic
* Lambert-conformal
* Mercator
* latitude-longitude (which can be rotated)

- Arakawa C-grid staggering
- Runge-Kutta 2nd- and 3rd-order timestep options
- scalar-conserving flux form for prognostic variables
- 2nd to 6th order advection options (horizontal and vertical)
- time-split small step for acoustic and gravity-wave modes:

* small step horizontally-explicit, vertically-implicit
* divergence damping option and vertical time off-centering
* external-mode filtering option

- lateral boundary conditions

* idealized cases: periodic, symmetric, and open radiative
* real cases: specified with relaxation zone

- upper boundary absorbing layer option

* increased diffusion
* Rayleigh relaxation
* implicit gravity-wave damping

- rigid upper lid option

- positive definite and monotonic advection scheme for scalars (microphysics species, scalars and tke)

- adaptive time stepping (new in V3.0)

- stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme for perturbing forecasts (V3.3)

- WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) advection scheme (V3.4)

- stochastic parameter perturbation (v3.9)


- microphysics

* Kessler
* WRF Single Moment (WSM) 3, 5 and 6 class
* Lin et al.
* Eta Ferrier
* Thompson
* Thompson aerosol-aware (v3.6)
* Goddard 6 class
* Morrison 2-moment
* WRF Double Moment (WDM) 5 and 6 class
* Milbrandt-Yau double moment
* Stony-Brook University Lin scheme
* NSSL 2-moment (v3.4) / 1-moment (v3.5)
* CAM 5.1 2-moment (v3.5)
* HUJI full and fast SBM (v3.6)
* P3 (v3.9)

- cumulus and shallow convetion parameterization

* Kain-Fritsch with shallow convection
* Betts-Miller-Janjic
* Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme
* New Grell 3D ensemble scheme
* Grell-Freitas ensemble scheme (v3.5)
* Tiedtke
* New Tiedtke (v3.7)
* New SAS (Simplied Arakawa-Schubert) from GFS
* Old SAS (from GFS too)
* Zhang-McFarlane
* Multi-scale Kain-Fritcsh (v3.7)
* Kain-Fritsch cumulus potential with shallow convection (v3.8)
* University of Washington shallow convection
* GRIMS shallow convection (v3.5)

- planetary boundary layer

* Yonsei University (S. Korea) with improved stable BL
* Mellor-Yamada-Janjic
* Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM2)
* Quasi-normal scale elimination/Eddy diffusivity/ mass flux (QNSE-EDMF) (v3.4)
* Level 2.5 and 3 Mellor-Yamada Nakanishi Niino (MYNN) PBL
* Bougeault-Lacarrere PBL
* University of Washington TKE PBL
* Total energy - mass flux (TEMF) scheme
* Grenier-Bretherton-McCaa TKE PBL (v3.5)
* Shin-Hong (v3.7)

- surface layer

* similarity theory MM5
* Eta or MYJ
* PX
* Revised MM5 scheme (v3.4)

- land-surface

* slab soil model (5-layer thermal diffusion)
* Unified Noah land-surface model
* Urban canopy model (works with Noah and Noah-MP LSM (since V3.9))
* Multi-layer building environment parameterization (BEP, works with Noah, Noah-MP (since V3.9), and requires BouLac and MYJ PBL)
* Building energy model (BEM, works with Noah and requires BouLac and MYJ PBL)
* Noah-MP (v3.4)
* SSiB (v3.4)
* CLM4 (v3.5)

* use of fractional sea-ice

* CLM4 lake model (v3.6)

* WRF-Hydro (v4.0)

- longwave radiation

* Goddard
* Fu-Liou-Gu

- shortwave radiation

* simple MM5 scheme, with Zaengl radiation/topography (slope and shadowing) effects
* Goddard (old)
* Goddard
* Fu-Liou-Gu

- ocean physics

* single-column mixed layer ocean model
* 3D Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) ocean model

- sub-grid turbulence

* constant K diffusion
* 2-D Smagorinsky
* predicted TKE
* nonlinear backscatter and anisotropy (NBA) turbulence option for LES (new in V3.2)

- land-use categories determine surface properties

- SST, greenness fraction, seaice and albedo update during long simulations

- analysis nudging, 3-D and surface (new in V3.1), flux-adjusting surface data nudging (v3.8)

- observation nudging (new in V2.2)

- spectral nudging using gridded analyses (new in V3.1)

WRF initialization

- idealized: several cases, 1D, 2D and 3D
- single column model (new in V3.1)
- real-data using WRF Preprocessing System (WPS) to prepare input data
- digital filter initialization (new in V3.0) for single domain and for one-way nesting

I/O Option

- netCDF, most common. Work with all supported graphics.
- PHDF5 (Kent Yang, University of Illinois)
- GriB 1 (Todd Hutchinson, WSI)
- GriB 2(Todd Hutchinson, WSI) (new in V2.2)
- Binary
- parallel netCDF (Argonne National Lab)

Platforms it runs on

- IBM SP systems (e.g. Power5/6-based systems)
- IBM Blue Gene
- SGI: Origin 2000 and Altix
- Linux: PGI, Intel ifort, Pathscale, gfortran and g95 compilers

Pentium 3/4 clusters and SMPs
Pentium 4 cluster iJet system at NOAA FSL
Intel Xeon IA32
IA64/Linux MPP (SGI Altix)
IA64/Linux MPP (HP Superdome at PNNL)
IA64/Linux MPP (NCSA)
IA64/Linux SMP (local)
AMD Opteron

- Mac Intel/PPC, PGI/ifort/g95
- Intel MIC (Xeon Phi 3100/5110P)
- Sun (single and SMP)
- Cray: CLE XE6 and XC30, CS300
- NEC: SX/8
- Fujitsu: VPP 5000, FX10

Software Architecture

- Hierarchical software architecture that insulates scientific code (Model Layer) from computer architecture (Driver Layer).
- Multi-level parallelism supporting shared-memory (OpenMP), distributed-memory (MPI), and hybrid shared/distributed modes of execution.
- Active data registry: defines and manages model state fields, I/O, nesting, configuration, and numerous other aspects of WRF through a single file, called the Registry.
- ESMF Time Management, including exact arithmetic for fractional time steps (no drift); model start, stop, run length and I/O frequencies are now specified as times and time intervals in 2.0 (rather than numbers of steps, as in 1.3 and earlier).
- Documentation, both on-line (web-based browsing tools) and in-line.

- Two-way nesting:

* Easy to extend: forcing and feedback of new fields specified by editing a single table in the Registry
* Efficient: 5-8% overhead on 64 processes of IBM

- Moving nest:

* support specified and automatic moving nest using a vortex-following algorithm
* fully parallel
* telescoping
* high-resolution terrain and landuse input
* efficient, less than 2% overhead for movement

- Enhanced I/O options:

* NetCDF, Parallel HDF5 formats, and Grib1
* split-output file option available for netCDF
* units in netCDF files are conforming to standard
* Five auxiliary history output streams separately controllable through the namelist
* Output file names and time-stamps specifiable through namelist
* Special output stream for 3DVAR
* runtime input / output selection (new in V3.2)

- Efficient execution on a range of computing platforms:

* IBM SP systems, (e.g. NCAR "bluevista/blueice" Power5-based system)
* HP/Compaq Alpha/OSF workstation, SMP, and MPP systems (e.g. Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center TCS)
* SGI Origin and Altix
* Linux/Intel

. IA64 MPP (HP Superdome, SGI Altix, NCSA Teragrid systems) . IA64 SMP
. AMD Opteron
. Pentium 3/4 SMP and SMP clusters (NOAA/FSL iJet system)
. PGI and Intel compilers supported

* Sun Solaris (single threaded and SMP)
* Cray X1, X1e (vector), and XD1 (Opteron) series
* NEC SX/8
* Fujitsu VPP 5000, FX10

Features new in version 3 of WRF software:

- RSL_LITE: communication layer, scalable to very large domains, nest support.

- Memory usage improvement.

- Generalized physics interface.

- ESMF integration: WRF can be run as an ESMF component.

- WRF-DA and model synchronization.


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